Germany enjoys a generally temperate climate that goes well with its gorgeous scenery. Slight variations characterize each geographic region, dictated by the Alps, the sea, the rivers, the forests, and the valleys.
German Spring: March, April, May
German Summer: June, July, August
German Autumn: September, October, November
German Winter: December, January, February
The average yearly temperature is calculated to be about 9° Celsius (48°F) for the whole country — although that seems to be strange considering the warmth we have in summer.
In the height of winter in January, the average temperature may be about 2°C (36°F). This may go down though to about –10°C (14°F) or even -15°C (5°F) in hilly and mountainous regions in South Germany!
There are no drastic differences between daytime and night temperatures, and it is even less noticeable in the northern regions than in the south. In summer, however, the reverse is true. The northern regions experience a bit more warmth than the Alpine regions of the South. The summer temperature in the coastal regions of the north averages around 19°C (66°F).
In the northern region along the Baltic coast, the climate is generally predictable due to the influence of the Atlantic. Summers are usually warm and quite sunny with a few intermittent showers. The days are long and the daytime temperatures may hover around 30°C (86°F). The pleasant climate of the season encourages a lot of tourism in the area at this time.
Winters can get severely cold and the mercury may plummet to freezing temperatures. It’s the season for snow and frost. Rainfall is to be expected from June to August, though it’s not unheard of at other times of the year.
The north western region is affected by the North Atlantic Drift which gives rise to warm summers and mild winters. This is however held responsible for the higher degree of humidity and extended rain and fog in the cooler months of autumn and winter.
Inland regions experience a continental climate where it may vary year to year. A cold, wet, spring or summer may shift to a warm, sunny one the following year. The cooler seasons may be characterized by a perpetually overcast sky with little or no sunshine till the beginning of spring.
South Germany experience pleasant weather almost throughout, especially around the Rhine, as evidenced by the extensive vineyards. As you go southwards towards the border with Switzerland, it gets warmer. The summers are warm with quite a bit of rain.
The severity of winter varies, depending to a large extend on the altitude of the region. The Alpine ranges are definitely colder and may have a thick blanket of snow that remains intact right up to the advent of spring.
The lowlands in the North have strong winds blowing from the west during winter. A peculiar phenomenon known to occur in spring or autumn is the foehn, which is a warm wind that blows across the central regions.
Warm tropical air blows across the slopes of the Alps, melting snows in spring. This weather change causes irritabilities ranging from head aches to bad tempers in the local population, which is easily attributed to the vagaries of the foehn. :-)