Erfurt is a city in Central Germany and the capital of the state of Thuringia (Thüringen) with a population of about 210,000. It is situated 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Leipzig, 113 km (70 mi) south-east of Kassel and 180 km (112 mi) south-east of Hanover.
The city was first mentioned in 742 under the name of Erphesfurt and was a vital trading town during the middle Ages. Collectively with the other five Thuringian cities of Gotha, Bad Tennstedt, Arnstadt and Bad Langensalza, it was the hub of the German wood trade.
Erfurt became a part of Prussia in 1803 and remained Prussian until 1944. Subsequently, on April 12, 1945, the city was taken by units of the U.S. and when American troops left the city, it was engaged by the Red Army on 3 July 1945.
After a while, it fell in the Soviet Zone of occupation. It was only after the German reunification when it became the capital of the re-established state of Thuringia.
Unlike most other major German cities, it fortunately suffered only lesser amount of damage from Allied air raids during World War II.
Frequently, this city is termed as A Rendezvous In The Heart Of Germany. You will certainly love to know that its medieval heart is one of the best-preserved anywhere in Germany. Even now, its wealth could be realized in its lovingly restored Renaissance buildings, half-timbered houses, churches and abbeys.
The remarkable Merchants’ Bridge is surely among the city’s most distinctive sights. Interestingly, it is the longest bridge in Europe to have houses along its entire length.
If you adore momentous sights, then the Cathedral Hill by way of Mary’s church and the cathedral of St. Severus, are there to captivate you. It is an imposing ensemble of two Catholic churches and grand steps leading to Cathedral Square.
The Augustinian Monastery, which was constructed in 1277, contains precious stained glass-windows. This spot dates back its origin from the 14th century as Martin Luther lived here from 1505 to 1511 as a monk.
Molsdorf Palace is also a wonderful sight to visit, watch and explore.
Another outstanding place is the Krämerbrücke. This is is a bridge, crossing the narrow Gera River, and it is roofed with inhabited buildings. It was built in 1325 with a church on either bridgehead. (They both still exist — amazing!)
Apart from all these sights, Erfurt is symbolized by two churches, the Mariendom and the Severikirche. Both these churches stand directly side by side. It’s being said that they form the emblem of the city.
Oh, and it also got its own airport: the Erfurt Airport (ERF).